The report says that around 1.1 million populations in the US are living with HIV today. 15% of those are unaware that they are infected with HIV. It equals the ratio as 1 in the 7 people. It is estimated by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention that in 2016, 38,700 people are reported as newly infected with HIV. From the data given by the trusted source, annual numbers of diagnoses of HIV are stable from 2012 to 2016. The major risk group of the infection is gay or bisexual. At the end of the year 2015, it was estimated that 1,122,900 adults and adolescents were living with HIV. The infection is increased in the age group of 25 to 34 years and among females, whereas stable among males.
HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Our body’s natural defense system i.e. immune system is attacked by a virus called HIV. It destroys white blood cells in the system called T-helper cells and makes duplicate copies of itself inside the cells. T-helper cells also referred to as CD4 cells. Due to the formation of new copies of HIV and destruction of WBCs, the immune system gets weaker. Hence, the person with HIV needs to take antiretroviral treatment, so that he/she can fight with the infections.
Causes of HIV
The virus transmits through bodily fluids like blood, anal fluids, semen, breast milk, and vaginal infections.
In the United States it is observed that the main causes of transmit of fluids are mentioned below:
Vaginal or anal intercourse with a person who is infected with HIV without using a condom or another contraceptive, sharing equipment for injectable drugs, steroids, and hormones with a person with HIV, a pregnant woman with HIV might transfer the disease to her child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding.
There are some risk factors which can cause you to progress your infection and lead to AIDS. The factors are mentioned here, age of a person, the capability of the immune system to fight against HIV, high quality and sanitary healthcare, drug-resistant strains of HIV, other infections, and genetic inheritance.
Diagnosis of HIV
- HIV mainly enters into the bloodstream. The doctor will ask you to test your blood for HIV. If that specific test results positive, it means you have detected with HIV antibody in your bloodstream
- If you are diagnosed at an early stage then you have more chances of successful treatment. Home testing kits are also available in the market
- To confirm the diagnosis, the doctor will ask you to perform re-test within a few weeks, it might be necessary for definitive diagnosis
Symptoms of HIV
Some people show no symptoms even after contracting the virus. Severe symptoms can occur in case people with infections like from other bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Around 80% of people with HIV develop symptoms at an early stage. These are similar to flu and it is known as an acute retroviral syndrome.
The symptoms are such as, fever, chills, joint pain, muscle aches, sore throat, sweats particularly at night, enlarged glands, a red rash, tiredness, weakness, unintentional weight loss, and thrush.
After acute retroviral syndrome if the infection is untreated, then the person enters stage 3 HIV infection i.e. AIDS. It weakens the immune system to fight infection. The person causes serious illness and becomes vulnerable.
At this stage infected person shows some symptoms such as, dry cough, permanent tiredness, swollen glands lasting for weeks, unintentional weight loss, shortness of breath, or dyspnea, white spots on the tongue or mouth, diarrhea, which is usually persistent or chronic, blurred vision, night sweats, and a fever of over 100°F (37°C) lasting for weeks.
Treatment for HIV
Abacavir Sulfate is the active component used in the medication to treat the HIV infection. Ziagenisan effective medication composed with this component and offered by leading pharmaceutical company GSK. It is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor that works by blocking reverse transcriptase, an enzyme needed for HIV virus replication. This medication also acts as a carbocyclic nucleoside.
Reyataz is a popular brand medicine used in the treatment of HIV infection, it controls the infection. Atazanavir Sulfate is an active component used in this medicine offered by the trusted pharmaceutical company, Bristol Myers Squibb. It is a protease inhibitor medicine that binds to protease. It is a protein that HIV needs to replicate in the body.
Darunavir Ethanolate is an active ingredient used in the medicine Prezista. Janssen Products LPis a well-known pharmaceutical company that manufactures this medicine. It acts by decreasing the amount of HIV in the blood and help the immune system. This drug helps to delay some of the medical conditions that usually result from AIDS or HIV disease.
Squibb Bristol Myers is a renowned pharmaceutical company that offers Sustivatablet. Efavirenzis an active component that treats infections associated with the human immunodeficiency virus I.e. HIV. This given drug Efavirenz directly inhibits the activity of reverse transcriptase and restricts the production of DNA and new viruses.
Emtricitabine-Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate is a combination of two active components used in the medicineTruvada. Gileadpharmaceutical company manufactures this medicine. It works in the same way to control HIV infection and chronic hepatitis B virus infections. Due to blocking reverse transcriptase reduces the amount of the virus in the blood. Tenofovir also increases CD4 cell count.
Epivir is a popular brand medicine composed with the active ingredient Lamivudine used in the treatment of HIV infection. GlaxoSmithKline is the leading pharmaceuticals company that manufactures this medicine. It is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor medicine that helps slow the progression of these diseases by restricting the ability of the viruses to replicate.
Lopinavir-Ritonavir is a combination of two active ingredients used in the medication Kaletra. AbbVie Inc.is a leading pharmaceutical company that has been manufacturing this medicine. It blocks the action of protease and leads to the formation of defective viruses that are unable to infect the body’s cells.
Viracept is a popular brand medicine composed with the active component Nelfinavir Mesylate. Agouron Pharmaceuticals is the well-known pharmaceutical company that manufactures this medication. It is potent HIV-1 protease inhibitor that can be used in combination with other antiviral drugs for the treatment of HIV in both adults and children.
Boehringer Ingelheim is a leading pharmaceutical company that manufactures the medication that has been manufacturing the popular brand medicine called Viramune. Nevirapine is an active medication used in the given drug. It is a reverse transcriptase inhibitor that helps viruses then released from the cells and spread throughout the body where they infect other cells.
Ritonavir is an active component belongs to a class of drugs called antiretroviral medication. AbbVie Pharma is a renowned pharmaceutical company that offers this medicine. Norvir is a popular HIV treating medicine composed of above active component.
Stavudine is an active ingredient used in the drugs to treat HIV infection. It helps to control the growth of virus in the body. E.R. Squibb & Sons, L.L.C. a trusted pharmaceutical company that manufactures medicine called Zerit. The virus replicates within the cells of the body.
Zidovudine-Lamivudine is a combination of two active medications that has been used in the medication to control the HIV infection. ViiV Healthcare is one of the fastest growing pharmaceutical companies offers Combivir medicine. It treats human immunodeficiency virus infection by reducing the amount of HIV in the blood.