In America Plasmodium vivax parasite is the predominant parasite reported 74.1% of Malarial cases. It is caused due to malarial vectors female Anopheles mosquitoes. There are 5 parasites species that can cause malaria in humans but, among these two species, i.e. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are the greatest threat. Malaria is an acute febrile illness and considerably at higher risk of contracting in children less than 5 years old, patients with HIV/AIDS, pregnant women, travelers, non-immune migrants, and mobile population.
Malaria is a disease caused by parasite i.e. infected Anopheles mosquitoes that carry Plasmodium vivax parasite. When mosquito bites, plasmodium gets released into the bloodstream, enters into the liver, gets matured and infects red blood cells. Parasites multiply within 48 to 72 hours and caused cells to burst. Plasmodium vivax is estimated to contribute about 41% of malaria infections. Patients with malaria usually feel very sick, with a high fever and shaking chills. The World Health Organization (WHO) provided that 212 million cases of malaria reported worldwide in 2015, with 429,000 deaths.
Causes of Malaria
Malaria causes through the bite of female Anopheles mosquito. It infects the body with parasite plasmodium vivax. Malaria can only be transmitted through Anopheles mosquito. It enters the bloodstream and multiplies it. The parasite plasmodium develops in the mosquito depends upon factors such as humidity and temperature. The host shows symptoms within 10 to 12 days.
Diagnosis of Malaria
Early diagnosis & treatment prevents deaths and reduces disease transmission. If you are showing signs and symptoms as mentioned below, you need to undergo diagnosis for malaria immediately. There are some tests that you have to perform to diagnose Malaria.
- Rapid Diagnostic Test and Parasitological Test
Symptoms of Malaria
According to infection malaria shows different symptoms. The following are some categorized symptoms:
Uncomplicated malaria symptoms: They are last for 6 to 10 hours and recur frequently. Some shear of the parasite might have a longer cycle or cause mixed symptoms. The symptoms of malaria resemble flu and that is progress as cold, hot, and sweating such as, fever, headaches, and vomiting, a sensation of cold with shivering, seizures sometimes occur in younger people with the disease, and sweats, followed by a return to normal temperature, with tiredness.
Sever type of Malaria shows some vital organ dysfunction and symptoms as following: Fever and chills, impaired consciousness, prostration, or adopting a prone position, multiple convulsions, deep breathing and respiratory distress, abnormal bleeding, and signs of anemia, clinical jaundice and evidence of vital organ dysfunction, severe malaria can be fatal without treatment.
The infection of malaria characterized by some symptoms usually occurs in 10 days to 4 weeks. Some parasites are dormant and take months to develop an infection. The symptoms are observed mentioned below. The common symptoms are shaking chills, high fever, sweating, headache, cough, nausea or vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, muscle pain & fatigue, convulsions, coma, and bloody stools.
Treatment for Malaria
Mefloquine Hydrochloride is an active ingredient used in the medication approved to treat Malaria. Teva Pharmaceuticals, a leading pharmaceutical company has been manufacturing a popular brand medicine Lariam. It is an anti-malarial agent that works as a blood schizonticide. It is active against the erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium species. This drug has no effect against the exoerythrocytic stages of the parasite.
Aralen is one of the popular brand medicines that treat malaria. Chloroquine Phosphate is the main active component used in this medicine. Sanofi Pharmaceutical, a trusted company that offers this medicine. This antimalarial medicine works by killing the bacteria that causes the condition malaria. These bacteria are present in the red blood cells or liver by attacking these bacteria at their sites and kill them.