According to data released by the Center of Disease Control and Prevention, nearly 15% i.e. 37 million of the US adults is reported with Chronic Kidney Failure, which is also called Renal Failure. Mostly in the ratio 9 out of 10 adults tested positive with the condition. The disease is more common in women than men. It usually occurs in old age i.e. after age of 65. It is found that 38% of the people older than 65 reported with the Kidney Failure, whereas 13% are aged 45 to 64 and 7% are aged 18 to 44.
2016 data revealed that 125,000 people in the US started the treatment for Renal Failure and 726,000 are on dialysis due to kidney failure and 240 people die every day that are on dialysis.
When kidney fails to filter waste products from the blood, that condition is known as Renal Failure or Kidney Failure. It loses its filtering ability; toxic substances accumulate inside, and chemical balance in your bloodstream get out of balance. It usually develops rapidly mostly in few days. It is known as Acute Renal Failure. Generally, it develops in the people who are already hospitalized, or in intensive care unit. There are five types of Kidney Failure such as, acute prerenal kidney failure, acute intrinsic kidney failure, chronic prerenal kidney failure, chronic intrinsic kidney failure, and chronic post-renal kidney failure.
Causes of Renal Failure
Kidney Failure can happen because of several health conditions or causes. Loss of blood also causes kidney failure. So there are some causes which can lead to sudden blood loss, as mentioned below:
Heart attack, heart disease, liver disorder, loss of water from body i.e. dehydration, severe burn, allergic reaction, anti-inflammatory medicines, high blood pressure, and severe infection like sepsis.
Due to some type of cancer or another reason your body cannot eliminate urine, and toxic substances build up, which blocks passageways. The type of cancers such as prostate, colon, cervical, and bladder causes problems.
Some of the other conditions might lead to kidney failure like kidney stones, enlarges prostate, blood clots form into the urinary tract, damage of nerve cells that might control your bladder.
Some other things that may lead to kidney failure include:
Consumption of certain antibiotics, uncontrolled diabetes, dyes used in some imaging tests, a blood clot in or around your kidneys infection, an overload of toxins from heavy metals drugs and alcohol, scleroderma, an autoimmune condition that affects your skin, hemolytic uremic syndrome, lupus, an autoimmune disease that can cause inflammation of many body organs, glomerulonephritis, an inflammation of the small blood vessels of the kidneys infection, usually of the intestines, multiple myeloma, a cancer of the plasma cells in your bone marrow, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, a disorder that causes blood clots in small vessels, chemotherapy drugs that treat cancer and some autoimmune diseases.
Diagnosis of Renal Failure
To diagnose Renal/Kidney Failure you need to perform some tests as mentioned below:
- Urinalysis: Urine sample would be taken to check abnormalities, protein and sugar contain in the urine
- Urinary sediment examination: This test measures the number of red blood cells and white blood cells
- Urine Volume Measurement: To check the blockage of urine in the tract
- Blood Samples: This test measures the amount of substances that are filtered by our kidneys. For example BUN i.e. Blood Urea Nitrogen and Cr i.e. Creatinine
- Imaging: Tests like MRI, CT Scan and Ultrasound are to be done to check abnormalities and blockage
- Kidney tissue sample: To check abnormal deposits, scarring, or infectious organism
Symptoms of Renal Failure
Kidney failure develops a few symptoms of the disease. Sometimes no symptoms are observed. Possible symptoms are like mentioned below:
Reduced amount of urine swelling of your legs, ankles, and feet from retention of fluids caused by the failure of the kidneys to eliminate water waste, unexplained shortness of breath, excessive drowsiness or fatigue, persistent nausea, confusion, pain or pressure in your chest, seizures, and coma.
At the early stage of Renal Failure, it might be difficult to pinpoint the symptoms. Those are usually subtle and not easy to identify. If you notice early signs of Renal Failure they may as mentioned decreased urine output, fluid retention that leads to swelling in limbs, and breathing problems.
Treatment for Renal Failure
Calcitriol is an active ingredient used in the medication to treat renal failure. Rocaltrol is a popular brand medication that is composed of this active component. Roche Pharmaceutical company, a renoened pharmaceutical company manufactures this medicine. It plays an important role in maintaining bone health, and low levels of calcium and increases blood levels of calcium by maximizing the absorption of calcium in the kidneys, the absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the intestine, as well as increasing the release of calcium-phosphorus from the bones.
Phoslo is an effective medication that treats above condition. It has composed of the main active component Calcium Acetate. Fresenius, a well-known pharmaceutical company offers this drug. This drug holds onto phosphate from the diet so that it can pass out of the body. It lowers phosphate levels in people who are suffering from advanced kidney disease. The high phosphate level leads to hyperphosphatemia and results into hyperparathyroidism, abnormal bone formation and calcium deposits in tissues.
Amgen Pharmaceuticals, a leading pharmaceutical company that offers Sensipar, a popular brand medicine. Cinacalcet Hydrochloride is an active component used in this medicine. This active component acts by reducing the amount of parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphorus in the body.
DDAVP, a popular brand medicine composed of active component Desmopressin Acetate. Ferring Pharmaceuticals, a trusted pharmaceutical company that has been manufacturing this medicine. It is used in the treatment of nighttime bed-wetting, central diabetes insipidus, and increased thirst and urination caused by head surgery or head trauma. It helps to control increased thirst and too much urination due to these conditions and helps prevent dehydration.
Renagel and Renvela are two popular brand medications composed of active component Sevelamer Carbonate for the treatment of renal failure. Genzyme Pharmaceutical company, a trusted company offers this medicine. These drugs work by binding phosphate in the gastrointestinal tract and reducing the absorption, Sevelamer carbonate that lowers the phosphate concentration in the serum or serum phosphorus.