According to the data provided by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, cases of Epilepsy are on rise in America. 3 million adults and 470,000 children are affected by the disease. Active Epilepsy reported in the U.S is about 1.2 percent of the population. Among children, 59,800 are reported with active Epilepsy, whereas among adults it is 367,900 in California alone. The study shows thatrise in cases are observed because of growth in population of America.
Epilepsy is a condition in which your central nervous system gets affected by seizures that occurs in the brain. It is chronic communicable disease and characterized by formation of two or more seizures in the part of brain. It can accompany with unusual brain activity, consciousness or control of bowel or bladder function. In a group of brain cells excessive electrical discharge occur due to seizures. It can cause loss of attention, consciousness or awareness.
Causes of Epilepsy
There are some identifiable causes in Epilepsy. In spite of nearly half of the people are unaware of the condition. The causes that can be identified are mentioned below.
- Genetics: The type of seizures or part of the brain affected,is genetic and the condition can run in families. This can be a genetically influenced
- Prenatal defects: In prenatal condition, poor nutrition, oxygen deficiency, or infection to mother can damage brain of the baby
- Traumatic brain injury: Car accident or any traumatic head injury can cause Epilepsy
- Infectious diseases: Viral encephalitis, meningitis, and AIDS like infectious diseases can cause Epilepsy
- Developmental disorders: Autism and Neurofibromatosis might be the cause of this disease
Diagnosis of Epilepsy
To diagnose medical condition like Epilepsy you need to inform doctor about your medical history and symptoms. There are some medical tests you need to perform, they are mentioned below.
- Neurological Examination: To diagnose type of epilepsy you are suffering from, the doctor will check your behavior and motor abilities
- Blood Tests: To check conditions associated with seizures, genetics, and infections
- Electroencephalogram: To detect the changes in the normal pattern of the brain
- High Density EEG: To detect more precisely which areas of your brain is affected by seizures
- Computerized Tomography (CT) Scan: To detect abnormalities in your brain that causes seizures
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging: This test also helps to detect cause of seizures in your brain
- Functional MRI(fMRI):To identify the exact location of critical functions
- Positron Emission Tomography: To detect active areas of the brain and abnormalities
- Single-photon Emission Computerized Tomography:It gives 3-D map of blood flow in your brain during seizures
- Neuropsychological Tests: To detect affected areas of your brain
- Statistical Parametric Mapping: To detect the origin of the seizures
- Curry Analysis: To detect and find plots where seizures are occur
- Magnetoencephalography: To detect the potential areas of seizure onset
Symptoms of Epilepsy
Repeated seizures occur in Epilepsy, which is the main symptom of the condition. Besides this following are some symptoms that occur persistently .
- Confused memory
- Intermittent fainting spells, during which bowel or bladder control is lost, which is frequently followed by extreme tiredness
- No response to instructions or questions
- Narcolepsy or recurring episodes of sleep during the day
- Sudden stiffness
- falling no clear reason
- Sudden bouts of blinking without apparent stimuli
- Sudden bouts of chewing, without any apparent reason
- Dizziness and unable to communicate
- Fugue states, a rare psychiatric disorder
- Repetitive movements that seem inappropriate
- Feeling fearful for no apparent reason
- Changes in senses, such as smell, touch, and sound
- Rapid jerking movements
- Convulsion with no temperature
- Panic attacks
- Cataplexy, or periods of extreme muscle weakness
- Trouble in sleeping/Nightmares
- Psychogenic seizures
Treatment for Epilepsy
Parlodel is a popular brand medicine used to treat the above condition. Bromocriptine Mesylate is the active ingredient used in this medication. Validus Pharmaceuticals, a well-known pharmaceutical company offers this medicine. It is an ergot medicine that works by acting like a certain natural substance i.e. dopamine in the brain.
Tegretol is the effective medication indicated for the treatment of epilepsy. Carbamazepine is the active component used in this medicine. Novartis, one of the leading pharmaceutical company manufactures this medicine. It reduces the spread of seizure activity in the brain. It restores the normal balance of nerve activity.
Carbidopa-Levodopa is the combination of two active ingredients composed in medication for the treatment of the above condition. Sinemet is a popular brand medicine, which is composed of this combination of medicines. Merck Sharp & Dohme is the trusted pharmaceutical company that manufactures this drug.
Carbidopa-Levodopa-Entacapone, a combination of three active ingredients that are approved for the treatment of this condition. Stalevo is an effective medicine used to treat this condition. Novartis is a pharmaceutical company that has been manufacturing this medicine.
Duricef is one of the popular brand medicines that treat this condition. Cefadroxil is the main active component contained in this medication. It is manufactured by the growing pharmaceutical company Bristol Myers Squibb. It binds to inactivates penicillin-binding proteins, which are located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall.
Clonazepam is the active component used in medicines to treat panic attacks or seizures. Neurontin is a well-known brand medicine composed of this component. This medicine works by increasing the activity of gamma-aminobutyric acid.
Depakote ER is the popular medication used in the treatment of seizure disorders, certain psychiatric conditions like manic phase of bipolar disorder, and prevents migraine headaches. Divalproex is the main active component used in this medicine. Abbott is the leading pharmaceutical company that has been manufacturing this medicine.
Entacapone is the main active component used in Comtan medicine to treat seizures. Novartis pharmaceuticals have been manufacturing this medicine. It is a COMT inhibitor that blocks a certain natural substance that breaks down the levodopa in the body.
Aptiom is an effective medication used in the treatment of epilepsy. Eslicarbazepine Acetate is the main active component Sunovion Pharma is the trusted pharmaceutical company manufacturing this drug. It is anticonvulsant medicine that inhibits voltage-gated sodium channels, especially in rapidly firing neurons.
Gabapentin is the main active ingredient used in the medication Neurontin. Pfizer Pharmaceutical company offers this medication. This anticonvulsant medicine treats postherpetic neuralgia that prevents the increase in sensitivity to pain that occurs while treating seizures, it alters the effect of calcium.
UCB Inc is a trusted pharmaceutical company that has been manufacturing medication Keppra. Levetiracetam is the active ingredient used in medicine. It works uniquely from most seizure medicines. It combines with a protein called SV2A that is involved with the release of certain chemicals known as neurotransmitters in the brain.
Levodopa-Carbidopa is a combination of two active ingredients used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Merck Pharmaceutical company is one of the fast-growing pharmaceutical company manufactures medication Sinemet, which is available in the Slow-Release form. The combination of drugs treats Parkinson’s disease.
Bayer Health Care is the fastest-growing pharmaceutical company that manufactures Nimotop medicine. It is composed of active component Nimodipine. It relaxes the blood vessels which are narrow bases present in the brain near the area of bleeding so blood can flow more easily. It also reduces brain damage.
Trileptal is an effective medication composed of active component Oxcarbazepine in it for the treatment of seizures. Novartis is a well-known pharmaceutical company that offers this medication. It is an antiepileptic medication that works as an anticonvulsant.
Boehringer Ingelheim is the trusted pharmaceutical company that manufactures this medicine to treat the above condition. Pramipexole Dihydrochloride is the main active component used in this medicine. Mirapex is the medication that helps to reduce the seizures in the brain. It is a dopamine agonist that activates certain receptors in the brain that helps reduce the severity of Parkinson’s disease and restless legs syndrome. It is also offered in the form of an extended-release tablet.
Procyclidine Hydrochloride is the active component used in the medication Kemadrin for the treatment of epilepsy. Monarch Pharma is a renowned pharmaceutical company that manufactures this medicine. It is an anticholinergic that blocks a certain natural substance like acetylcholine. This drug reduces muscle stiffness, sweating, and the production of saliva. It also helps improve walking ability in people with Parkinson’s disease.
The Azilect drug belongs to a group of drugs known as MAO inhibitors. It increases the levels of certain natural substances in the brain, for instance, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin. It has an active component Rasagiline Mesylate, which is manufactured by the leading pharmaceutical company, Teva pharmaceuticals.
Requip is the popular brand medicine is used in the treatment of the above condition. Ropinirole is the main active ingredient used in this medicine. GlaxoSmithKline is a trusted pharmaceutical company.
It is indicated for the treatment of restless legs syndrome. It improves sleep by reducing the urge to move the legs and reducing uncomfortable/unpleasant feelings in the legs.
Selegiline Hydrochloride is an active ingredient used in the medication that treats the given condition effectively. Eldepryl is one of the popular brand medicines that are composed with this ingredient. Mylan Pharma is the well-known pharmaceutical company that offers this medicine. It is an enzyme blocker i.e. MAO inhibitor that slows the breakdown of certain natural substances in the brain i.e. neurotransmitters like dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin.
Topamax is the effective medication used to treat this condition effectively. Topiramate is the main active component used in this medicine. Janssen Pharma is a renowned pharmaceutical company that has been manufacturing this medicine. It is an anticonvulsant drug that acts on certain chemicals, channels, receptors, and enzymes in the brain to help control seizures and prevent migraines.
Pfizer is the fastest growing pharmaceutical company that offers Artane, which is the effective medication used in the treatment of this condition. Trihexyphenidyl is the active ingredient used in this medicine. It is an anticholinergic that acts by restricting the function of a certain part of the nervous system that regulates body movements. It also helps relax certain muscles and makes movement trouble-free.
Zonegran is the popular brand medicine composed of the active component Zonisamide. Concordia Pharmaceuticals, a well-known pharmaceutical company offer this medicine. It acts against the clonic phase and may stabilize neuronal membranes.