Cancer has a huge impact on the community in the US. 2018 data as it revealed that 1,735,350 new cases are reported and 609,640 cases of death caused by Cancer are reported. Cancer mortality is higher in men as compared to women. In 2016, it was estimated that there were 15.5 million cancer survivors in the U.S. and it is expected that, it would be increased to 20.3 million by 2026.
Cancer causes by some chemical substances known as Carcinogenic substances. It develops with a genetic defect. Genetic factors of humans are genes, which are located in the cell structures called chromosomes. Genes control cell functions and undergo changes or mutations if the cell’s regulatory system fails. Cancer cells develop when mutations occur in genes that play a crucial role in regulating cell growth and differentiation.
Cancer-causing genes are of two types such as Oncogenesis, Cancer Generating Genes, which cause the uncontrolled distribution of cells and Tumor suppressor Genes, Anti-Cancer Genes, it induces Cancer.
Damaged cells start to divide uncontrollably, and lead to carcinogenesis.
There are four main types of Cancer as follows:
- Carcinomas: It develops in the skin or tissues, mainly that covers the surface of internal organs and glands
- Sarcomas: It starts in tissues that support and connect the body
- Leukemia’s: It is a blood cancer
- Lymphomas: It is developed in the lymphatic system
Causes of Cancer
Generally, Cancer is caused due to accumulated damage to genes. There are some factors that causes Cancer, they are divided into categories for better understanding. They are as follow:
- Biological or internal factors: Age, gender, inherited genetic defects, and skin type
- Environmental exposure: Like exposure to radon – UV radiation and fine particulate matter
- Occupational risk factors: Exposure to carcinogens chemicals like, radioactive materials and asbestos
- Lifestyle-related factors: Consumption of tobacco, alcohol, UV radiation in sunlight
- Food-related factors: Foods containing nitrites, polyaromatic hydrocarbons
- Factors related to work and living environment: This includes asbestos fibers, tar & pitch, polynuclear hydrocarbons, metal compounds, and plastic chemicals
- Bacteria and viruses: These include helicobacter, HBV (Hepatitis virus), HCV, and EBV (Epstein – Barr virus)
- Radiation: Include ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation
- Drugs: Consumption of anti-neoplastic agents, hormones, and medicines that lead to immune deficiency
Diagnosis of Cancer
You need to perform some medical tests to diagnose Cancer.
- Physical examination: To check abnormalities in your body parts, lumps, skin color, shape and size of organs, etc.
- Laboratory tests: Urine test and blood test to identify abnormalities that can be caused by cancer
- Imaging tests: To examine your bones and internal organs in a noninvasive way. It may include computerized tomography (CT) scan, bone scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) scan, and ultrasound and X-ray
- Biopsy: Sample of cells tested in the laboratories to check cancer cells that look less orderly, with varying sizes and without apparent organization
Symptoms of Cancer
Disease like Cancer develops gradually and shows signs and symptoms that get worse with time. Most of the symptoms are similar to other illness and symptoms are depending on the body part, which is affected by cancer. Sometimes it takes years to show symptoms or signs. There are some common symptoms observed in Cancer as mentioned below:
Skin color turns yellow, dark or red, sores that won’t heal, or changes to existing moles, fatigue, lump, sudden weight gain or loss, hoarseness, changes in bowel or bladder habits, difficulty swallowing, trouble breathing, persistent cough, indigestion or discomfort after eating, unexplained bleeding or bruising, muscle or joint pain, and unexplained fevers or night sweats.
Treatment for Cancer
The trusted pharmaceutical company, Ani Pharmaceuticals manufactures Arimidex. This is an effective medicine composed of Anastrozole as the main active component. It is an anti-cancer medication. It is used for the adjuvant or initial treatment of breast cancer in post-menopausal women.
Casodex is a medication offered by the leading pharmaceutical company, AstraZeneca. It has an active component Bicalutamide. It is a nonsteroidal antiandrogen that works by blocking the action of male hormones in the prostate.
Genentech Inc is a well-known pharmaceutical company that offers medication Xeloda. It is composed of Capecitabine as the main active ingredient. It is used to treat various types of cancer. It treats colorectal cancer, a type of cancer that is treated frequently with 5-FUn that inhibits the production by the cancerous cells of both DNA and protein.
Tarceva is an effective medication offered by the trusted pharmaceutical company, Genentech Pharmaceuticals. It contains active ingredient Erlotinib Hydrochloride. This active ingredient is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that blocks a particular protein on cancer cells.
Novartis Pharmaceuticals is a leading pharmaceutical company that has been manufacturing an effective drug Afinitor for the treatment of this condition. Everolimus is an active component used in this drug to prevent rejection of a kidney transplant.
Aromasin is approved for the treatment of this condition offered by the trusted pharmaceutical company, Pharmacia and Upjohn. It has an active ingredient Exemestane, which is an aromatase inhibitor medicine.
Iressa is a medicinal drug manufactured by the AstraZeneca pharmaceutical company. Gefitinib is the main active component in this medicine acts as a protein kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of lung cancer.
The leading pharmaceutical company Bristol-Myers Squibb manufactures effective medicine Hydrea. It contains active ingredient Hydroxyurea. It works as a substitute for some parts that the cancer cells need to grow in people with cancer.
Novartis is the trusted pharmaceutical company that has been manufacturing a useful drug Gleevec to treat the given condition. Imatinib Mesylate is an active component used in this medicine. It is an antineoplastic agent that inhibits the growth of cancer cells.
Femara is an effective medication offered by one of the well-known pharmaceutical companies, Novartis pharmaceuticals. Letrozole is an active component, which is an aromatase inhibitor, used in this medication.
Megace is a medicinal drug used to treat the given condition. This medication has been manufactured by Bristol Myers Squibb. Megestrol Acetate is the main active component in this medication that works by stopping the formation of a certain hormone, blocking hormone receptors, or substituting similar agents for the active hormone.
Teva Pharmaceuticals, one of the renowned pharmaceutical company offers Purinethol. It has active component Mercaptopurine, which is a chemotherapy drug that damages the RNA or DNA that helps the cell for the multiplication of itself by mutations.
Zofran is an active ingredient manufactured by the leading pharmaceutical company, Novartis. It is composed of active component Ondansetron. This medicine is an antiemetic that is offered in the Zofran ODT form also.
Bayer Health Care is a trusted pharmaceutical company that offers a popular brand medicine Stivarga. It has Regorafenib as the main active component. It is a cancer growth blocker called kinase inhibitor drug works to restrict signals that tell cancer cells to grow and also stops the cancer cells from forming new blood vessels, which they need to be able to grow.
Nexavar is a popular brand medicine manufactured by the well-known pharmaceutical company, Bayer HealthCare. Sorafenib Tosylate is the main active component in this medicine. It blocks some of the enzymes essential for tumor cell growth. The active immune system fights against the cancerous cells in the body to treat liver cancer, thyroid cancer, or kidney cancer.
One of the popular brand medicine Temodar is used to treat this condition. The trusted pharmaceutical company Merck Sharp & Dohme offers this medicine. Temozolomide is the main active ingredient used in this medicine. This ingredient is an Alkylating agent that acts by restricting cancer cells from forming DNA.