According to the American Cancer Society, 174,650 new cases and 31,620 deaths are reported under Prostate Cancer condition in 2019. It is diagnosed in the ratio as 1 in the 9 men. Usually, it occurs in the older age i.e. after 65 and very rare before the age of 40. In American men, Prostate Cancer is the leading death cause after lung cancer. Death ratio due to Prostate Cancer has the ration as 1 in the 41 men. Death due to this type of cancer is very rare since around 2.9 million people diagnosed with Prostate Cancer are still alive.
The uncontrollable growth of the cells in the body leads to cancer. Prostate gland are only found in males, which makes helps semen in growing cells out of control and develop prostate cancer. The prostate is situated ahead of rectum and bladder. It is about the size of a walnut in younger men and larger in older men. Prostate glands are behind the prostate called seminal vesicles. Glands form most of the part of semen. A tube-like structure carries urine and semen known as the urethra. It passes through the center of the prostate. All type of Prostate Cancer is adenocarcinomas that start in the glands, which are present inside the body. There are other types of cancer than Adenocarcinomas such as Neuroendocrine tumors, Sarcomas, Small cell carcinomas, and transitional cell carcinomas.
Causes of Prostate Cancer
The exact cause of prostate cancer is not known. But, there are some causes as scientists believe regarding Prostate Cancer.
Basically, it is caused in DNA of the abnormal prostate cell. DNA makes our genes that control the function of our cells and inherit some characters from our parents. Oncogenes are the genes which support cells to divide, grow and stay alive and Tumor suppressor genes are the genes, which control the growth of cells, repairs DNA, and cause cells to die at right time. In cancer, DNA changes as oncogenes become more active and tumor suppressor become inactive.
Some common factors which cause Prostate Cancer are mentioned below.
- Abnormal functioning of the prostate
- Abnormal mutations i.e. rapid
- Inherited genes mutations
- Acquired gene mutation
- Exposure to radiation or cancer-causing chemicals
- Inflammation in prostate might damage the DNA in prostate and develop normal cell into cancer cells
Note: Factors like age, family history, and obesity are risk factors to cause Prostate cancer.
Symptoms of Prostate cancer
Prostate cancer never shows symptoms in its early stage. But, after developing it shows identifiable signs and symptoms. The symptoms are mentioned below.
Trouble urinating, decreased force in the stream of urine, blood in semen or urine, discomfort in the pelvic area, bone pain, erectile dysfunction, interrupted flow of urine, frequent urination at night difficulty emptying the bladder completely, consistent pain in back, hips, or pelvic area, pain while ejaculation, unexplained weight loss, fatigue, changes in bowel habits, swelling in legs or feet, fluid buildup in legs, and discomfort or pain while sitting.
Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer
Prostate Cancer is a slowly growing cancer. When you noticed symptoms, you must diagnose it as early as possible.
To diagnose Prostate Cancer following are some medical tests should be performed as mentioned below.
- Digital rectal exam (DRE): To check abnormalities in your prostate
- Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test: It is the first step to diagnose Prostate Cancer. If a result of this test is abnormal, your doctor might take other tests to diagnose it
- Biopsy: The small piece of prostate taken under the microscope. Gleason Score is determined, ranges from 2 to 10. A lower score indicates low chances to spread cancer
For more clarity, the doctor may take MRI i.e. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Sonogram. Other tests might also perform to check the area where cancer cells are spread, the process known as staging.
- Ultrasound: It gives the picture of your prostate gland, uses to detect cancer
- Collecting a sample of prostate tissue: To check cancer cells present in the prostate
- MRI fusion: It assists the biopsy of the prostate to diagnose the Prostate Cancer
Treatment for Prostate Cancer
Abiraterone Acetate is the main active component used in a popular brand medicine Zytiga. It has been manufactured by leading pharmaceutical company, Janssen. It works by inhibiting specific enzymes in the adrenal glands that are responsible for producing androgens. This might cause high blood pressure, low levels of potassium in the blood, and fluid retention.
Xtandi is one of the popular brand drugs to treat prostate cancer, which is composed of Enzalutamide. Astellas Pharmaceutical company, a well-known pharmaceutical company that manufactures this medicine. It is an androgen receptor inhibitor that is a type of hormones that includes testosterone. This type of medicines interferes with the connection between androgens and androgen receptors. It helps to slow the growth of cancer cells and prevent further growth.