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Thyroid diseases are occurred when a problem with thyroid gland arises. The gland is a butterfly-shaped gland situated in the front of the neck. The thyroid gland plays an important role to regulate various metabolic processes in the body. Various types of Thyroid disorders affect the human body.

The gland is located below the Adam’s apple and wrapped around the trachea i.e. windpipe. It uses iodine to produce important hormones for the body. Thyroxine or T4, is the primary hormone produced by the thyroid gland. And T 3 is the most active hormone.

The gland is a part of endocrine system. The endocrine system coordinates with many of the body’s activities. Hormone T3 and T4 produced by the glands regulates the metabolism of the body. Basically, thyroid disorder arises either when excessive production of the i.e. hyperthyroidism or very less production of the hormone i.e. hypothyroidism.

The pituitary gland and hypothalamus controls thyroid gland. So, problem with thyroid causes problems with both pituitary gland and hypothalamus.

Disorders are classified as following:

  • Hypothyroidism
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Goiter
  • Thyroid nodules
  • Thyroid cancer

Causes of Thyroid Disease

The production of the thyroid hormone in insufficient amount leads the problem with thyroid gland known as Hypothyroidism. This condition develops due to the thyroid gland, pituitary gland, or hypothalamus problems, there are some causes as mentioned below:

  • An autoimmune condition, which causes inflammation of the thyroid gland known as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
  • Thyroid hormone resistance: Other kind of inflammation of the thyroid like, postpartum thyroiditis and acute thyroiditis

Excessive production of thyroid hormone leads the condition known as Hyperthyroidism. This condition is very rarely observed. Signs of hypothyroidism are related to increased metabolism.

Most common causes of observed in the condition of hyperthyroidism are mentioned below:

  • Graves’ disease
  • Toxic multinodular goiter
  • Thyroid nodules known as thyroid nodule
  • Excessive iodine consumption

Diagnosis of Thyroid Disease

According to the symptoms observed the doctor may predict the condition like Thyroid disorders. Symptoms are such as fatigue, poor concentration, feeling mentally “foggy”, dry skin, constipation, feeling cold, fluid retention etc.

  • Blood tests: This test is performed to measure levels of thyroid hormones, TSH and identify antibodies against thyroid tissue
  • Imaging tests: This test is performed when enlargement or nodules are present. This test also reveals the cysts if present
  • Thyroid scans:  This test is performed by using radioactive iodine to evaluate the function of thyroid nodules
  • Fine needle aspiration and biopsy: These are common techniques to exact diagnosis of the condition. In this technique, a sample of cells or tissue from the thyroid gland is removed for examination to diagnose the condition by pathologist. The surgical sampling of a tissue is called as biopsy

Symptoms of Thyroid Disease

Signs and symptoms of the Thyroid Diseases are based on the causes. Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism both shows different kind of symptoms. Following are symptoms observed in the condition of hypothyroidism:

  • Fatigue
  • Poor concentration or feeling mentally “foggy”
  • Dry skin
  • Constipation
  • Feeling cold
  • Fluid retention
  • Muscle and joint aches
  • Depression
  • Prolonged or excessive menstrual bleeding in women

Following are symptoms observed in the condition of hyperthyroidism:

  • Tremor
  • Nervousness
  • Fast heart rate
  • Fatigue
  • Intolerance for heat
  • Increase in bowel movements
  • Increased sweating
  • Concentration problems
  • Unintentional weight loss

Treatment for Thyroid Disease

Synthroid is a popular brand medicine composed of active component Levothyroxine Sodium used in the treatment of thyroid disease. AbbVie Inc, a well-known pharmaceutical company that manufactures this medication. It is a man-made version of the principle thyroid hormone, i.e. thyroxine. It is made and released by the thyroid gland. It also increases the metabolic rate of cells of all tissues in the body. Thyroid hormone is important in the fetus and newborn babies for the growth and development of all tissues such as bones and the brain. It helps to maintain brain function, utilization of food, and body temperature in adults.

King Pharmaceuticals, a renowned pharmaceutical company that offers a popular brand m=drug like Tapazole used to treat thyroid disease. Methimazole is an active component used in this medicine. It protects iodine and peroxidase from their normal interactions with thyroglobulin to release T4 and T3. It lowers thyroid hormone formation. It also interferes with the conversion of T4 to T3. Since T3 is more potent than T4, it decreases the activity of thyroid hormones.