2015 data revealed as diabetes being the seventh leading cause of death. It is found that 30.3 million populations of the Americans reported diabetes. While 84.1 million have pre-diabetes, a condition that leads to Type-2 diabetes if not treated. According to report declared by CDC i.e. Center for disease control and Prevention, more than 100 million adults in the U.S are living with diabetes or pre-diabetes. Diabetes has become chronic health problem in the America. American Diabetes Association said that about 95% of the diabetes patients are of Type-2 usually comes with obesity. And only 5% cases are of Type-2 diabetes, which is not related to lifestyle factors.
When the body is unable to use and store glucose i.e. a form of sugar properly, then the condition is called Diabetes. Basically there are two Types of diabetes Type-1 and Type-2.
Type-1: Formerly it is known as juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes. Body is unable to produce insulin completely. Insulin is a hormone, which enables the body to utilize glucose in food for energy. It is common in children and adults. Patients with Type-1 Diabetes need to take insulin injection to survive.
Type-2: Formerly it is known as non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset. Either the body resist to produce enough insulin or unable to utilize insulin properly. This Type of diabetes is usually occurs in older age i. above 40 because of lifestyle factors, obesity, inheritance, etc. Now-a-days it is tested in adolescents too.
Pre-diabetes: When the body glucose level is higher than normal but not high enough to satisfy condition for diabetes, the condition is called as Pre-diabetes. In this condition of the body, there is high risk of developing Type-2 diabetes.
Causes of Diabetes
Cause of Type-1 diabetes: Exact cause of Type-1 Diabetes is not known. According to the study, the cells, which produce insulin in the pancreas, are destroyed by the immune system of your body along with harmful bacteria and viruses. This results the deficiency of insulin. Sugar in your body could not transport to body cells but, builds up in your bloodstream.
Cause of Type-2 diabetes: The cells in your body resist the action of insulin and pancreas unable to make enough insulin to fight back the resistance. Hence the sugar is not transported to your body cells and deposits in your bloodstream. The most common cause for Type-2 diabetes is obesity.
There are some risk factors for Type-1 Diabetes such as, family history, environmental factors, presence of auto-antibodies, and geography.
There are some risk factors for Type-2 Diabetes such as, weight, inactivity, family history, age, polycystic ovary syndrome, high blood pressure, and abnormal cholesterol & triglyceride levels
Diagnosis of Diabetes
The American Association for Diabetes advised that the people, who are in following category, should test for diabetes. The categories are as follows:
- A person with BMI above 25
- A person above the age of 45
- A woman with gestational diabetes
- A person with pre-diabetes
There are some medical tests to measure blood sugar you have to perform for diagnosis of diabetes. The tests are as follows:
Glycated Hemoglobin Test (A1C): The test indicates your average blood sugar level and gives percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin.
|5.7 – 6.4||Pre-diabetes|
Random Blood Sugar Test: It measures the blood sugar level, when sample is taken at random.
The random sugar level of 11.1 mill moles per liter or more indicates Diabetes.
Fasting blood sugar level: It measures the blood sugar level after overnight fast.
|Fasting blood sugar level||Result|
|100 – 125 mg/dL||Pre-diabetes|
|126 – higher mg/dL||Diabetes|
Symptoms of Diabetes
Diabetes is a metabolic disease, which raises the level of sugar in your blood. High blood sugar can affect your nerves, kidneys, and eyes. Both Type-1 and Type-2 diabetes has problems of insulin, which unable blood sugar. If you prevent high glucose level in your blood can save you from developing diabetes. If you are a woman experiencing diabetes, you may experience some unique symptoms like yeast infections, dry or itchy skin, or urinary tract infections, etc.
The disease shows symptoms mentioned below. It depends on your blood sugar level. Symptoms are extreme unexplained fatigue, tingling or numbness in the hands or feet, being very thirsty, frequent urination, vision problems, increased hunger, irritability, weight loss, frequent skin, bladder or gum infections, and wounds that don’t heal.
Treatment for Diabetes
Treatment for diabetes is depends on your blood sugar level and Type of diabetes you have. Oral medications may play important role in the treatment of Diabetes. Monitor your blood sugar level regularly.
Acarbose is an anti-diabetes generic drug for treating Type-2 diabetes, which lowers blood sugar. Top brands like Precose and Glucobay use Acarbose as an active ingredient. Acarbose is an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor slows action of enzymes, which breaks food down into sugars and also slows digestion of carbohydrate to maintain blood sugar level of the meal. The medicine composed in conventional tablet forms, which are white or yellow-tinged in color and packed as 10 tablets per blister. The medicine is available in dosages such as Acarbose 25 mg, Acarbose 50 mg and Acarbose 100 mg. The medicine is not suitable for children below 18 years old.
Glyburid is an anti-diabetes generic drug belongs to sulfonylureas group treats Type-2 diabetes. Glyburid lowers blood sugar, prevents kidney damage, blindness, nerve problems, loss of limbs, sexual function problems, lessen risk of heart attack or stroke, and releases the body’s natural insulin. Top brands like Diabeta and Micronase use Glyburid as an active ingredient. It is available in Glyburid 5 mg dose. The medicine is composed as white oval conventional tablet and packed as 30 tablets per blister. This medicine is not indicated for children and women. Limit exposure to direct sunlight, while treating with this medicine. Wear protective cloths, apply sunscreen, and avoid tanning booths. Consumption of alcoholic beverages is strictly prohibited with this medicine.