High blood pressure or hypertension is a condition that can be detrimental to health, as it causes gradual damage to the functioning of the heart and blood vessels. Hypertension is a chronic condition that cannot be cured, it can only be managed. It is necessary to get treatment for managing the condition well, which will reduce the risk of heart damage. It can be treated with medications that help in lowering blood pressure.
Blood pressure medications come in different strengths. The healthcare provider will check your blood pressure and based on the readings, they will suggest a medication with dosage and particular strength. In addition to medications, you must implement some lifestyle changes that will prove beneficial in bringing your blood pressure to a safe range.
Popular medications for treating hypertension
Medications are essential for controlling the pressure with which the blood moves in the vascular passages. According to Mayo Clinic, your healthcare provider will prescribe you some common and popular medications that will manage your blood pressure. They include:
Diuretics also known as water pills, diuretics are the first-line treatment for high blood pressure. These medications prevent water retention in the body. Excessive amounts of water and sodium in the body can increase the volume of blood, which can contribute to vascular and heart damage. Diuretics help in eliminating excess water and sodium from the body. There are three types of diuretics, which include thiazide, loop, and potassium-sparing.
Calcium channel blockers
Your body needs calcium, which is a mineral that does get produced within the body. Certain types of foods can obtain calcium, however, lack of it can make the body fulfill the calcium need from your bones. While doing this, the calcium may reach the arteries of your heart and causes vasoconstriction. As a result, the vascular passages get clogged and become narrow, which can lead to an increase in blood pressure. However, calcium channel blocker medications conduct vasodilation and relaxation of the blood vessels and reduce blood pressure.
Angiotensin 2 Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
Angiotensin is a chemical enzyme, which gets released into the bloodstream. It is responsible for causing vasoconstriction and narrowing the vascular, due to which the blood pressure rises. The function of ARBs medications is to prevent angiotensin hormones or enzymes from raising blood pressure by negating their impact on the body. Moreover, The effect of this medicine keeps the blood vessels dilated and relaxed, which lowers blood pressure.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor medications are primarily used for the treatment of hypertension. Besides, they are also prescribed for treating heart and kidney disorders. Moreover, The function of ACE inhibitors is to negate the action of Angiotensin-converting enzymes in the body. ACE enzymes lead to the narrowing of the blood vessels, as they contribute to vasoconstriction. This causes a rise in blood pressure. But the medications help in relieving muscle tensions, and they expand the vascular passages to reduce the pressure exerted by the blood on the vascular linings.
These drugs are also called, beta-adrenergic blocking agents, and their function is to block the function of epinephrine, which is a hormone. Epinephrine is also known as adrenaline. Moreover, The effects of these drugs slow down the heartbeat and make it easier for the heart to get the blood pumped. It expands the vascular passages and lowers blood pressure.
Your kidneys produce an enzyme, called renin, which is responsible for regulating blood pressure. It does not affect the blood pressure on its own, it works with hormones such as angiotensin and aldosterone, which have vasoconstricting properties. Vasoconstriction spikes blood pressure. Renin inhibitors negate the action of this enzyme and prevent blood pressure from rising.
Alpha-blocker drugs are used when the medications that are listed above are not getting you the required effects. Moreover, These drugs help in decreasing your blood pressure and improving the circulation. They do so by inhibiting the action of norepinephrine, which is a hormone that leads to constriction of the blood vessels. These drugs effectively negate the function of the norepinephrine hormone and cause the complete relaxation and expansion of blood vessels.
In addition to using these blood pressure medications, it is equally important to do some lifestyle changes that will support the medications in maintaining the blood pressure in a healthy range. Lifestyle factors like diet, exercise, sleep, addictive habits, etc. impact your overall well-being incredibly. You can achieve optimal health by controlling these factors.
Eat a clean and nutritious diet, exercise regularly, give up smoking, limit alcohol consumption, rest adequately, and learn to manage stress. A healthy lifestyle in combination with blood pressure medicines will prevent heart and vascular damage and give you a long life.