What Causes Infertility In Women

In general, Infertility is an inability to conceive or become pregnant. This condition may arise due to some difficulties with the function and health of the reproductive system, which prevents a couple from a successful conception. An individual can be considered infertile when they have been trying to get pregnant, by having unprotected sex on multiple occasions, for more than a year.    

Female infertility can have different causes. It can be a bit complicated to get it diagnosed. There are different types of treatments available corresponding to the cause. In this blog, we shall see the factors that lead to infertility among females.  

Symptoms of infertility in females

If you have been trying to conceive, by engaging in unprotected sex with your partner, for more than a year but still haven’t been successful, then there must something wrong. Moreover, The issue of fertility can be tied to the menstrual cycle. An irregular menstrual cycle, or absence of it is an indication that you might not be ovulating.


In general, Ovulation is the process of release of the matured ovum (or egg) from the follicle, which happens every month. After getting released from the follicle, the ovum enters inside the fimbriae, which are the structures that appear like fingers present at the end of the fallopian tube. The matured ovum sweeps inside the fallopian tube through fimbriae and waits for it to be fertilized by sperm.

But the females with menstruation disorders might have an issue with ovulation. The ovum might not become mature and take longer to get released, which can contribute to infertility.

Factors causing infertility in females

Infertility among females can happen due to the occurrence of one or more than one factors, which are given below:  

  • Ovulation disorders

Ovulation disorders can be attributed to several problems that affect the normal functioning of the female reproductive system and interfere with the menstrual cycle. How it contributes to infertility include:

        • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

                           In this case, the dysfunction of the thyroid gland leads to ovulation failure. Both the underactive thyroid gland, as well as the underactive thyroid gland, can affect ovulation. Due to the hormonal imbalance, the ovum might fail to mature, which prevents it from getting released from the follicle. This contributes to infertility.  

        • Hormonal fluctuations

                         The two hormones responsible for ovulation and conception are follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). These two trigger the maturing and release of the ovum from the follicle and control ovulation. An imbalance of these hormones can affect the menstrual cycle and prevent pregnancy. 

  • Endometriosis

This is a disorder that causes the abnormal growth of the tissues that are similar to the tissues that form the lining of the uterus. The tissue grows outside the uterus and occupies more space, thereby affecting the other organs. The tissue just acts like the tissue of uterine linings and gets deposited in the other parts such as fallopian tubes, pelvis, ovaries, and intestines. This abnormal development of tissue can impact the fertilized egg’s ability to get implanted in the uterine wall, which prevents pregnancy.  

  • Fallopian tube damage

The fallopian tube might get damaged due to infections and diseases. Sexually transmitted disease (STD) can be a contributing factor to fallopian tube damage. Some other diseases that affect the reproductive system including chlamydia, gonorrhea, etc. can lead to severe damage to the fallopian tube and prevent the ovum from getting fertilized and implanted.  

  • Uterine and cervical abnormalities

The non-cancerous growth and development of tumors and fibroids in the uterus and cervix can affect the process of implantation of the fertilized ovum. It can even cause blockage of the fallopian tube, thus preventing the meeting of sperm and ovum. Some females can have a birth defect, which can affect their reproductive function.   

Also, the cervix produces cervical mucus to support the fertilization process and keep the vagina lubricated and protected against infections. Cervix  makes it easier for the sperm to swim to the ovum. Moreover, It has a key role in conception. It changes its form from becoming thick to thin to allowing the sperm to slide to the ovum easily. However, if the mucus quality becomes poor, it makes conception difficult. This usually happens due to hormonal imbalances.    


Any of these factors can make the conception difficult. The females that are risk prone to developing any of these conditions may have an unhealthy lifestyle. Individuals that abuse alcohol, smoke, have a history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), are overweight, or are obese are more likely to face difficulties with conception.  

Healthy Lifestyle

Adopting healthy lifestyle habits will reduce their chances of infertility. A proper diet, exercise, healthy weight, sexual hygiene, etc. will eliminate the possibility of infertility. Smoking, alcohol, and weight are considered the biggest contributing factors to Infertility. So, it is necessary to give up bad habits and start incorporating healthy lifestyle habits.  


Lastly, there are treatments available for addressing fertility problems. The methods of treatment differ corresponding to the problem. Moreover, It is necessary to consult your healthcare provider that can help with conception. Do not feel shy or hesitant to talk to the healthcare provider. The clearer and more honest you are, the better it will be, as they will be able to work more efficiently on diagnosing and treating your fertility issues.    

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