What Causes Infertility In Men

Couples that haven’t been able to conceive a child despite having unprotected sex on frequent occasions for more than a year can be infertile. Either one of them might be having some issues with their fertility or both. The reason for infertility differs in both sexes. Some males might experience difficulties with fertility owing to lifestyle factors or reproductive health disorders. Which prevent them from fathering a child.

Reasons for infertility in males

The inability to have a successful conception can leave the couple disappointed. If it has been over a year since you have been trying to conceive. But in vain, then rather than trying your own techniques, you must get medical treatment. The healthcare professional will perform the diagnosis and suggest some appropriate treatment that can fix the issue of infertility. There can be various factors responsible for the failure of conception, let’s see what they are:  

  • Unhealthy sperm

During puberty, the reproductive organs grow and develop to become mature. There is a surge of hormones happening during the period of adolescents. Which triggers the growth and functioning of the reproductive system. The testicles are responsible for producing sperm. Sperm health depends on the functioning of testicles and hormones such as testosterone and others. Unhealthy sperm can lead to fertility problems and if it gets the ovum fertilized and implanted in the uterine wall, a miscarriage will happen.

  • Low sperm count

The ducts are the delicate tubes that transfer the sperm produced in the testicles to seminal fluid. In case of diseases and infections such as urinary tract infections (UTIs), chlamydia, and others, the ducts might get affected, which leads to their blockage after some scar formation. These blockages prevent the transfer of sperm from the testicles to the penile from getting ejected.  

Moreover, low sperm count can result after surgical procedures, hormonal imbalances, chemotherapy, or other radiation therapies can destroy the sperm cells. Low perm count can also occur due to genetic defects or chronic diseases like diabetes, testicular cancer, or prostate cancer.  

  • Sperm morphology

The shape and size of the sperm determine its ability to swim to the ovum and get the ovum fertilized and implanted in the uterine wall for conception. If the sperm has a distorted shape and low motility, it will not be able to swim faster to the ovum. A sperm must have an oval-shaped head, with a long tail. Which makes it easier for the sperm to move swiftly. Abnormal sperm is considered unhealthy and does not lead to pregnancy.    

  • Infections

Some infections such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), chlamydia, gonorrhea, HIV, etc. can cause damage to the reproductive system. It can bring down reproductive health by deteriorating the function of testicles, blood vessels, and other organs of the reproductive system. This can impact sperm production. In case of any such infections, it is necessary to get timely treatment. Which will prevent damage to the reproductive system and restore its health.   

  • Genetic defects

Some males might have defects ever since their birth. Which makes it difficult for them to get their partner pregnant. It is moreso a chromosome defect, wherein the male was born with two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome, instead of one X and one Y chromosome. This can give rise to other defects.

  • Sexual disorders

Some males may experience sexual disorders such as erectile dysfunction and ejaculatory disorders. In the case of erectile dysfunction, the male might not be able to get an erection or maintain an erection. They may fail to ejaculate due to weaker erections. In the case of ejaculatory disorders, ejaculation may not happen in time. Which makes conception difficult.  

  • Varicocele

This is a condition that leads to the swelling of the veins of the testicles. It may develop due to the poorly functioning valves of the testicular veins. The swelling leads to the enlarging of the veins in the scrotum. Which can affect sperm health. It can impact sperm quality and motility. Varicocele is one of the most common causes of infertility among males. It can be corrected with the help of surgery.

  • Hormonal imbalances

Hormones are responsible for the health of the sperm, reproductive organs, and sexual function. Imbalances of hormones give rise to many problems related to reproductive health.   

  • Surgical procedures

Males who underwent some surgical procedures such as vasectomy, testicular surgeries, prostate surgeries, scrotal surgeries, prostate removal, etc. can prevent fertility from happening. Such procedures can affect a male’s ability to conceive a child permanently.      

  • Medications

Certain types of powerful medications and drugs can destroy sperm cells and inhibit their production due to their side effects. Medications taken during chemotherapy, steroids, testosterone replacement therapy, and several other types of drugs can lead to infertility among males.   

  • Chronic smoking

Chronic smokers are more likely to have low sperm counts compared to non-smokers. They may have low sperm quality, which can affect their fertility.   

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